Cloud Computing Architecture

Cloud Computing Architecture

ah welcome to the course on cloud computing
we will will continue our discussion on ah different aspects of the cloud computing today
we will look at or we will start with cloud computing architecture right what are we will
start with the basic introduction and we will go to more details in todays or subsequent
lectures so if we look at these high level architectural approach or high level view
of this things so what we have at the at the end of the things what we are looking for
one is that from the ah user prospective or overall cloud computing it is we want to achieve
some ah business goal right it can be business goal with respect to consumers it can be business
goal with respect to the producer or it may be the overall frame work of the cloud computing
right so ah some of the business goals is the major
thing we are next we have the quality attributes and then the architectural tactics or the
basic architectural frame work so if you look at that ah business goal at the top of the
thing what we looking for primarily we are looking for some t c o like what is the total
cost to the organization who are the stake ah what about the stake holder satisfaction
ah compliance with different standards market shares flexibility etcetera so this is the
overall business goal from the c s p point of view and to achieve this business goal
we have few more parameters we need to be looked into or which are which need to be
monitored measured and what we mean to say that need to be managed properly is that ah
issue of availability elasticity interoperability security adoptability performance usability
and maintainability now if you if you look at this ah if you ah
just go back in one or two lectures where we started with the basic definition of cloud
computing so we were looking for these aspects of the things like that whether how much available
how it is elastic how what a interoperability so these are major what we say major characteristics
of the ah cloud so this this characteristics basically allows a service provider to define
his business goal ah across these different cloud market and finally in order to achieve
this different ah measured services or the business goals we need to have basic architectural
techniques or architectural ah view so ah like there were the considered essentials
are whether it is a stateless design whether we it whether we loosely coupled right what
we are thinking that there are there are several devices which ah which are geographical is
spread so they may be loosely coupled hetrogenious need to be what we want to bring into the
thing is a some sort of a ah interconnect and homogeneity between the things over broad
network access right so what is the caching mechanism so claim what should be the authentication
whether it is claim based authentication then there are several tied several other aspects
of the architectural techniques now if you look at this sort of things somewhere
other are manifested at at any type of ah service model like if i say infrastructural
service model so some aspects will come into play if i say ah paas some other aspects will
come into play and we saas or any other type of model so this ah becomes important keep in mind
while ah while developing proposing any architectural view so with this respect or with keeping
this in view we see that ah what are the ah basic consideration to have in this cloud
architecture so if you look at the major building block of cloud computing architecture one
is that technical architecture right structuring according to the xaas stack right adopting
cloud computing paradigms structuring cloud services and components ah middle ware and
communication and management and security so this are more technically ah architect
ah technical feature of the architectural things there are some of the things which are deployment
operation architecture right like geo location check right i may ah i may want to say that
due to my federal requirement all my data all my applications for my any type of government
type ah government related activities should be within the territory of the country right
i do not force for any application or any data outside the things like if i am having
a mail service the mail data mail server etcetera should reside within the ah geographically
bounded area of the of our nation so that might be a thing there are there there may
be other legal issues etcetera and there are deployments issues like operation and monitoring
so what should be the operational view how it will be monitored how this xaas stacks
looked in to those are the other deployment operation architecture so if you ah if you look at this typical xaas
thing so what w have at the down is this infrastructure as a service then platform as a service software
as a service this is the typical stack of the or typical or most popular xaas excess
a xaas applications or services now if you look at the ah this architectural side of
the things or the ah basic building block so down the line is more of a storage and
infrastructure so ah this is that is the colour in the blue up in the thing is the application
this right and there are the client infrastructure which interacts with this application in between
is the middle where or what we say that the platform or the platform as the service take
obtained where the services cloud runtime libraries and other things come out so any any realization of any cloud computing
ah infrastructure whether it is a public private ah open source customized we need to look
in to some where other is broadly has to have these type realization and if we look as ah
view of consumer versus providers or the customer versus provider so there are ah again for
the iaas again this is primarily important for i t architect in the i t operation type
of things for the end user or or the application user that is more important is the application
user application administrator etcetera which howards around the top of the things like
one of the popular things eg application may be the c r m right and where as for the software
architect developer which which comes in the middle which uses this hardware infrastructure
or which is uses this infrastructure as a service develop something and which are deployed
or put support to these application above this so these are the this categories like in the
ah in the middle of the things so different people or different category of users are
different view of this architecture right now we just try to map that ah with this our
very two popular one of means two popular cloud services there are several other popular
services but these are the things which are available on the which will put to get so
one is the microsoft windows azure platform another is the amazon cloud platform or amazon
e c two now look at that also divided into more or
less in the that three stack right this is as more at the bottom of the things same as
the incase of e c two ah in case of amazon it is windows servers and ah related stuff
where is in case of e c two it is it can be windows linux infrastructure along with s
three ah amazon s three ah and simple dv and other type of storage and in between we are
having this ah this middle where which emulates the platform this is as a analog of stuff
there and at the top it has the applications right right ah this are some of the windows
azure applications and these are the ah amazon applications and here the client can connect
through ah either in case of a client this is silver light in case of this or ah we can
connect it through the browser so one thing i just look like to mention ah
it was there in the previous slide also there are two article stack right what we say ah
management and security right this is important because this management and security issues
sometimes people who want to put the security is also a management aspect and sometimes
we have other aspects like what we say quality of services so management quality of services
and security in some in some of the references or metriasys you will find that so all this
are these are the scenarios where these are the stack which goes vertical that means it
cannot be it i cannot achieve security or management taking only one layer at a thing so it is it is it requires some sort of a
cross layer considerations that is why these are vertical stacks and if you see the same
thing ah in case of a case of these ah azure or e c two so these are also we have these
vertical stacks right so they have different component of security relevant component of
management but these goes on the vertical stack similarly ah the security aspect is
based on the we see later on based on how much control we are having goes on to things
like if i am if i am having infrastructure as a service so my security or management
is more consideration on the ah as a infrastructure so ah so once i rollout this infrastructure
one i vision this infrastructure actual machine etcetera so that is the responsibility of
the user or the consumer to look in to the thing if i having a up to a software as a
service then all these issues are need to be provided up to that layer right so a say
a a what put processing service or c r m service which is a software service so ah all aspects
up to that level of management and security it will provided so that it depends that what
sort of service provisioning or the what sort of ah service deployment we are doing for
this ah particular ah particular scenario there are several aspects or issues as we
are talking about one is elasticity as we are mentioned or as we are know ah that elasticity
is one of the most important characteristics of cloud like if i if i scale up scale down
into my ah in to this computing parodied now in order to achieve that so there can be two
broad approaches right so this is this two broad approaches ah which is two when without
cloud also it is more of a elastic computing when do one is that i can one i can do it
vertical scale up that means at more resources to the box right we have a particular infrastructure
say for for example i have a particular rack with different servers so we initially we
are having say i am having some twenty four servers then i scale up putting more server
in to the things or my chases may be holding sixteen blades and having initially four based
on the requirement i the organization feels that the requirement go go on another four
or up to a sixteen blade chases ah like full fully loaded chases now this is vertically
going up right so this is ah has advantage where for in case
of a small scenario scale up is probably cheaper ah so that it works just you be put on the
things right so add more resources to a single computational box and move the work load to
the computation unit to more resources so i i have more resources whereas ah when we
have scenarios where for larger scenario scale out scale out is only solution one is to sixty
four way server is much more expensive than sixty four into one way server right so having
say sixty four of one unit computational power and trying to achieve realize a sixty four
computational units is much cheaper than having a six one unit of sixty four ah computation so what is happening that when i have a large
scale scenario then expanding in that fashion may be pretty costly ah so in that cases not
only expanding in terms of cost ah in terms of only financial aspects it is maintainability
rate of failure may be pretty high like a one ah if the single system it is a single
point of failure at time where as i if i have a multiple systems so that if an ah if some
systems fails then i can have a way to work on in a ah little lower performance metric
but i can work out the things so this becomes whether it is a horizontal
scale up or scale out or it is a vertical scale out we need to consider based on my
our requirement now ah if we ah again come back to our service model so xaas what is
happening is the combination of service oriented infrastructure or a service oriented architecture
on in for realization of infrastructure and cloud computing realize to a xaas so what
is the service oriented architecture ah i believe most of you are acquire ah already
knowing so what will do ah we will have a some sort of slides on service oriented architecture
in ah subsequent lectures so that those who are not in the ah not hm understand or not
ah very much familiar with this type of things we will have a immediately quick check up but never the less it is a service driven
ah approach for infrastructure or paas or any type of things right so we are tried to
combine s o i and cloud computing to realize this xaas so anything as a service is a generalization
of cloud related services refers to increasing number of services that are delivered over
internet rather than provided locally or on site xaas is the essence of cloud computing
already we know so anything as a service so still we seen
data is a service another popular we can have anything other type of services right so as
ah some of these popular xaas instance is one is infrastructure as a service platform
software service already known there is another thing came up what is what is now becoming
pretty popular what we say business process as a service right so or i have a business
work flow which want to give as a service so horizontal or vertical business processes
provided on a subscription basis to companies or industries like suppose for a particular
particular ah operation i have a business process right so what are ah what does it
mean it it may not be only one applications which is delivering the things so i have different
processes which has a archaistism between them then allow me to realize a particular
ah applications right it can be for ah something for the banking sector it can be for some
of the aspects of different development planning operations of the things so it is not only
i run a application and get results ah a application is dependent on other applications another
etcetera etcetera so i have different processes or applications
which allows me to realize the thing so it means as if p one two may lead to something
called pue three which can is a input to the p three and in turn p three and p four will
come out with the final outcome of the things now i have different may be different processes
right or ah so these are archaistics in the things so i can say i have business process
which is which is basically division of the ah or ah amalgamation or integration of the
of different sub processes or sub applications the interesting feature is that there is a
timing relationship and a what we say processes execution tree or process execution graph
will be there so that it it follows a particular things now for this sort of things if it is a define
then whether i can say this i give a service with a business process everything so it is
not now not only the application as a service or software as a service so i basically have
a something more than software as a service which talks with things incidentally different
processes may come from from different heterogeneous providers so i can basically now interact
with or collaborate with different cloud service providers and then realize the thing so this business process is important because
end of the day specially for the organization this matters rather ah many of you might have
heard there is a very popular language what we say business process execution language
where you can defined what is your business process of outflow in to the thing and so
it realize the thing right so that is one one of the major aspects so iaas is the raw
infrastructure c p u etcetera paas is the virtualized application development or run
time platform saas is the software application hosted in the cloud provided in a subscription
basis and this business process as a service is a horizontal or vertical business process
involved in ah basis ah on a subscription basis to companies or industries right and
if we again little renew so it is something a tapering thing our popular iaas paas and
thing paas are the infrastructure so other than this three most popular examples
we have ah several other ah business process ah ah several other xaas instances like we
have already seen business process as a service there is storage as a service i can have security
as a service like its it provides different security future as a thing i can have data
base as a service right so i do not want to install etcetera i want to leverage database
into a service monitoring management as a service like i want to manage my i t infrastructure
like i want to i have a large say in our i t infrastructure we have large labs ah which
are used by different category different type of p g u g courses and i want to basically
manage the things right like manage the things upto a starting from software of the means
what is the software going on whether they are michinious basically having any problem
from the hardware or type of things different things so whether i can have i have separate
tools or i somebody gives me a service which connects with this machines and do the things
right or any any large infrastructure in case of a organization so communication content computing as a service
these are the some of the things identity as a service backup as a service desktop as
a service so i can have anything as a service and these are some of the things which are
being used across the world so end of the day what does c s p or the cloud provider
is looking for increase ah productivity end user satisfaction some innovative ah services
so that it has it can hold its market position and have different intry ah it is ah its infrastructure
as a aisle right so it is as aisle and it can give it is it cores it it can what we
say configure it self along with the need of article so if we look at this again if we come back
to our ah basic definition and try to see so one is the broad network access resource
pooling business driven infrastructure on demand like what is there and service oriented
orientation service oriented architecture so all this four hills us in realizing this
xaas type of services so xaas fulfills all the four ah typical demands of ah service
provider right now ah like our network stack ah like our
t c p i p r o s i models so if i want to have that what will be the typical classical stack
of the things right stack of our service model or xaas model so at the at the base of the
things what ah so it is not like that ah so it is a what we say logical way of looking
at the things right it is not like that ah that something will done always over the other
but it is a logical representation of the things like at the core of the thing is the
networking so you have a underlining broad network access
which allows the things to talk each other right another core component is the storage
it is also something omnipresent other aspect is the server so if you look at this three
stuff are primarily is the major building block what we say the bear metal things over
which it works so one is the communication one is this ah different servers and other
physical infrastructure and other one is the storage storage always we try to keep it as
a separate aspect other than keeping one of the infrastructure in some of the cases storage
are kept as a infrastructure but storage plays a different type of role storage management
is different thing so that is that those are a important aspects
of the ah storage is the input aspect over that what in order to realize are the things
is that is aspect of virtualization right so i need to virtualize all the things so
i can have a virtualization of the whole infrastructure i can have the virtualization only of the
particular behaviour actual missing i kept even virtualize the network so i have a infrastructure
virtualization i want to realize a particular virtualization network infrastructure and
of course storage and there is a virtualization basically try to have these so called virtual
machines or virtual network virtual storage type of ah stuff over that if it is a virtual
machine i need to put the particular o s over which i should run the thing right or and
so this over that this middleware then i have runtime library the data over for ah which
more closely with the application and finally end of the top of the stack is the applications so these are the different components which
make this iaas that the ah feasible it is it may be noted that all the components are
not equally important ah may not be equally important for all type of xaas type of thing
but never the less they play a important role in realization of the thing now if we try
to because always it hewers that all all we are some somewhere other we are already getting
this stuffs right what is the what is this big paradise shift right so as such we should
ah we have already mentioned in our initial lectures that already we are ah having distributed
systems and other things into place we do realize lot of things etcetera so make make it to make it more market viable
and having a scalable computing infrastructure we as you go model measures are so if you
look at that a simplified i t i t stack so we have end user devices application and dedicated
infrastructure so this is the in the legacy i t or still it is very much still it is very
much ah present in or rather omnipresent in various organizations and other type of thing
so these are somewhat clipped together right or more strongly coupled right so that ah
dedicated application runs over the applications dedicating infrastructure so application size
seeing etcetera are made based on the infrastructure or other way around end user also have a some dedicated application
to work with right whereas what we go for what we are trying to realize is more of a
simplified i t infrastructure right where where these are are little bit flexibilities
are maintained so i have some dedicated infrastructure over application end user devices but they
are not very strongly bound so this is the ah thing what we are going to do and it it
is it can be soon also we can since see some of the subsequent lectures that this sort
of things may allow us to have better utilization of the resources or better return on investment
right or having a giving service different of different type of services on the same
type of or a or a common resource based type of thing in some of the cases several organizations
has several surplus resources like if i talk again about our own u g or p g labs which
may be having huge amount of ah computing resources but then they may not be utilize
across twenty four hours right they are utilized may be eight to ten hours on a very ah very
loaded but out of out of class hours or out of lab hours the those can be clubbed together
to have to give the researchers the opportunity to run high simulation on the basic ah pc
type of platform so that may be one way of utilizing own resources in a better fashion so ah there are some of the other things like
classical model plus xaas model there are different aspects like licensed software hardware
product and people based services these are the more popular aspects of our ah traditional
cloud right traditional infrastructure models or classical infrastructure model and we need
to make the architecture in such a fashion that it it maximizes this effort whereas in
is our our imagine things we are going to a xaas type of ah services like so ah that
is ah software iaas paas or any any type of any type of xaas type of services and rather
ah if you look at our classical ah thing or still it is very much valid we have a client
server architecture right so there is a server which serves several
clients and based on the server programme is running on the server and always waiting
for the client to connect and we connect to the thing and this is extremely popular and
still very much in the use and will be in the use in in several cases right that from
there we are migrated to a service oriented architecture so instead of this very strongly
craple client server we have service oriented to it service talks to each other and there
are distinct advantages we can have heterogeneous things to talk to each other and we we have
lot of flexibilities very popular client server things are like
f t p server ah telnet s t d p are a way particular demon of the server part which ah looks into
this ah talks to this client so we will we will carry on our discussion in our ah subsequent
ah lectures on this ah particular architectural aspects of a cloud computing and will also
see that different things of virtualization another thing so to for today we will for
now for this lecture we will stop here thank you


  • Mayank Sharma

    September 21, 2018

    Which book should we read ?

  • Vidyut Devam

    January 12, 2019

    Just blah blah blah. Show me the code.

  • 2MB Bhogade

    February 28, 2019

    Registered course for Cloud Computing on NPTEL
    Course started from 25 Feb 2019


Leave a Reply